Saturday, August 24, 2019
Lakota Woman Is About Mary Crow Dog Coming Into a Sense of Identity as a Lakota Woman - Essay Example This being the case, she is undergoing a crisis of identifying with each of the cultures, but the crisis is deepened even more by the fact that the whites do not readily accept and appreciated the Indian Lakota culture, since they have isolated and rejected Mary Crow DogÃ¢â¬â¢s mother (Brave and Erdoes, 21). Her mother has persistently tried to fit into the new white culture, but the whites do not seem ready to accept her within their community. In fact, Mary puts it thus, "the life of an Indian is not held in great value in the State of South DakotaÃ¢â¬ (Brave and Erdoes, 25). It is this struggles that MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s mother is undergoing that has made her out to look for her elderly relatives and connect with the Lakota culture and tradition, where she would be readily accepted. The major impediment to Mary Crow Dog adapting the white culture is the fact that she is also doubtful whether she will be accepted, considering the fact that the white community had already rejected her mother. The journey in search for identity as a Lakota woman is neither smooth even in the Sioux nation where she embarks on building her identity (Brave and Erdoes, 77). Mary Crow Dog also faces hate, rejection and resistance in that community. She starts by joining an American Indian youth group, where she is initiated into the membership of the American Indian Movement. During her tenure in the movement, struggles are many and abuses are also present, thus Mary Crow Dog does not come out of it free, because she ends up becoming pregnant by one of the members of the movement. Even though the man by whom she got pregnant was one of the Indian Americans whom Mary wanted to identify with, she is rejected and abandoned, and thus has to bear and take care of his son on her own. Therefore, rejection and abuse serves as the two major factors that challenge MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to establish an identity and instead leaves her with a Ã¢â¬Å"split personalityÃ¢â¬ (Brave and Erdoes, 251). She had initially thought that she could be readily accepted and appreciated in her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s homeland as opposed to being in her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s homeland, but the reality turned out to be different.Ã
Friday, August 23, 2019
Diversity and Multiculturalism Meaning - Assignment Example sity has been defined Ã¢â¬Å"as acknowledging, understanding, accepting, valuing, and celebrating differences among people with respect to age, class, ethnicity, gender, physical and mental ability, race, sexual orientation, spiritual practice, and public assistance statusÃ¢â¬ (Esty, et al., 1995). Diversity can be defined in many other ways too. Diversity is recognizing and appreciating the various characteristics, some of them have already been mentioned above, that make an individual unique. Diversity helps in promoting individual as well as collective achievement. Diversity believes in providing equal opportunities to all irrespective of race or religion. The concept of diversity is being increasingly used by business managers to deal with the issues that have cropped with the increased presence of minorities and women in the workplace. "Managing diversityÃ¢â¬ has become a critical part of the management of an organization. Diversity has to be successfully managed or else i t can lead to an increase in employee turnover, absenteeism, disruption in work, harassment and what is more important a low morale. All this in turn will further lead to low productivity. Today it has become necessary to have a diverse workforce as it adds value to an organization. Diversity in a workplace means recognizing and respecting individual differences that may arise in the workplace. This will benefit the organization and lead to more productivity and also give a competitive edge to the organization. Good diversity management means creating a fair environment for the employees. Today many definitions and terms can be used to describe multiculturalism. One definition is that multiculturalism is Ã¢â¬Å"the doctrine that several different cultures (rather than one national culture) can co-exist peacefully and equitably in a single countryÃ¢â¬ and "by making the broadest range of human differences acceptable to the largest number of people, multiculturalism seeks to overcome racism, sexism,
How far do you think railway travel influenced notions of identity and community in colonial India Give specific examples - Essay Example This is because the railway lines were relevant in the formation of imagined communities especially after the division of India into present day India and Pakistan. The train changed the social relations from that she refers to as concrete lived relations to abstract generalities while it also became a sign of collective identity. Travel through the railway in Colonial India also eliminated individual identities to communal ones which led to the doing away with the held social relations. Therefore, travel through railway lines in Colonial India greatly affected how the citizens identify with each other as well as how the community interacts. In this paper we will discuss the notions of identity in colonial India as affected by travel and transport through the railway line. Our focus will be on how travel through railway led to the growth of a sense of national identity amongst people of disparate regions in colonial India and the raising of the consciousness about the social order in the Indian community. The paper will also make a discussion on how travel by railway in colonial India mobilized the people around one political ideology thus givi ng them a sense of identity as one Indian community. The most everlasting and contribution of European Imperialism to its colonies were through the invention of machines and amongst the most important was the invention of locomotives. The locomotives had the potential to move people and goods from one point to another which had serious impacts on the social, cultural, economic and political compositions and identities of societies. Almost all colonial governments used their superiority in technology to annex and exercise control over the affairs of nations. The colonialists used technology such as construction of railway lines rather than ideologies to further their imperialistic ideals over the colonies.2 These could be through the progress and power
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Natural monopoly Essay The concept of Ã¢â¬Å"Natural MonopolyÃ¢â¬ comes from economics. It is a situation in which majority of the portion of market is covered by a single firm or company. The goods, services or products offered by the company covers the maximum portion of the market. A Natural Monopoly is a situation in which the cost of producing the product (goods or services) is lower due to economies of scale. In a situation of Natural Monopoly, there are no close substitutes to offer the same product or services. Economies of scale is a situation or condition in which the cost to a company of producing or supplying each additional unit of a product or service decreases as the volume of output increases. Economies of scale is not the only reason for the existence of monopoly. A Natural Monopoly also exists because of sole access to a particular resource or technology and because of the use of non-market means to eliminate competition, including buying up competitors and colluding with customers or suppliers to discriminate against competitors. A Natural Monopoly also exists even if there are multiple competitors in the market. In such case, the firm which can attain the largest volume of output and the lowest production cost will be called as a Natural Monopoly. All the other firms will have to exit the industry because they are unable to compete on a price basis. Basically, it is very difficult for any competitor to enter the market of natural monopoly because of very high cost of production facilities which includes the cost of infrastructure. There is also a high uncertainty among the intended competitors that they will be able to oust the existing monopolist. Some of the most commonly used examples for natural monopoly are utilities such as water supply system, electric power transmission system, railroads and pipelines. Though it is very difficult for any intended competitor to enter the market of natural monopoly, but it is very important for us to remember that natural monopoly is not permanent. This is because technological advances can lead to the development of new forms of competition for an industry, change its cost structure and affect the demands for its products. For example, canals were once a natural monopoly for bulk transport in parts of Europe and the U. S. , but these monopolies disintegrated during the nineteenth century as a result of the development of railway.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Dystopia In Film | Metropolis Vs Utopian Art Deco The 1920s in Germany were a transition time, World War I had recently ended, and it was precisely the war that showed the destructive potential of modern technology. Invented and first used by the Germans in 1915, machine guns and poison gas showed the deep split between technology and humanity, it was the first modern war in which machines decided the outcome. In this time in history, it was the embracement of technology in other parts of the world, the Art Deco movement was the Utopian new way of living. After the war in Germany, American modernity became a powerful agent in the economic and cultural modernisation. America represented the New World, since Germany had a lack of national identity, the idea that mass culture might be a secret American weapon, one that would enslave the world by distracting it made sense according to Isenberg (2009, p.182-183). Combining these two facts, the German loss of dignity during the first World War, and modernity rising, it created a certain c omfort for the German culture to accept the modern movement, since it represented the ideal of living in the present which made it easier to forget about the harsh past. At first America was seen as a good idea, but by the mid-1920s Germany faced a stability in politics and economy, which questioned American way of living, its technological progress began to be seen as inhuman. Germany was beginning to feel threatened by America, with its focus on materialism and mechanisation of life, seeing it as a way to kill the human side of humankind. In 1927, the German film director Fritz Lang, created a movie analysing just that, our future with machines and its possible outcome. It was a film created to show the comfort Germany first took in accepting modernity but in a way where humanity would lose it all to it. The Art Deco movement at the time, stood for the modern world and the evolution of people through the new inventions of machines. Metropolis, still believed in this Utopian life but created its own, showing how human and machines can work as long as one important factor is not forgotten, which the modern world seemed to have already done. In comparison to the Art Deco modern views, Metropolis created its own view, which can be seen as its own naÃ ¯ve Utopian world, but also showed the Dystopia that could occur from this fast modern movement. In order to see how the two go hand in hand, one must look at important elements which happened at this time, the introduction of new technologies which affected almost all the aspects of life. From architecture to fashion, people and their ways were changing, since freedom was now praised upon, everything that used to be taboo or conservative was now in the open. Taking into consideration that the major elements, which make up Art Deco, are present in the film; this is to show how they were used to portray the negative side of this modern vision. We all believe in a Utopian way of life, in perfection, but the consequences are most of the time overlooked, and the film Metropolis was that vision, showing the effects of the new technologies people were praising and how it would forever change people, life and the world. Without further ado, lets see how the film has proven itself to be a masterpiece but most importantly how a purely imaginative vision may have foretold our future, from began as a Utopian idea to what may have changed the fundamentals of humankind. The late teens and early twenties in Germany was a time of rampant inflation, decadence, personal liberty, violence and insecurity. It was followed by the unfortunate rise of the Nazis during the late twenties and early thirties, which saw a severe clampdown on freedom of expression is all walks of life, especially the arts and politics according to Organ (2009). The central theme of Metropolis is that of a separation between working class and higher-ups and the need for a mutual understanding of each is presented both abstractly and directly through the image rather than the word. This theme of workers revolting against domination by exploitative management, their soulless machines, and new technologies, also struck a chord with reviewers and the general public, though many critics in America and Britain objected strongly to this anti-Fordism / anti production-line tale. As such, Metropolis, with its many themes and sub-texts, including the almost obligatory boy meets girl, boy loos es girl, boy finds girl was a controversial film from day one It garnered both positive and negative comment wherever it was shown, and generated much critical discussion in the press upon release according to Organ (2009). In order to understand the importance of the visual work accomplished in the film, on must look at different scenes from the movie where this is proven, such as the opening shot of line upon line, file upon file, of workers marching down the hallway towards the elevator that takes them down into the depths of the citys machines and inner workings. Each worker wears the same uniform, shuffles their feet in the same manner as if they were a military unit, and each slouch and hold their heads down in unison according to Simon M (2010). Such images as workers being fed to a giant monster, masses upon masses of slave labor building the biblical Tower of Babel, and Death itself swinging its scythe indicate the possible fall of this turbulent society in a stark and shocking way not possible through ordinary images or even the written word. They give this story something of a mythic and fantastic property, portraying its message through symbolism rather than realism, exaggeration rather than realism according to Simon M (2010). The pleasure garden in which Freder (the main character) indulges in the most hedonistic of pleasures, providing a stark contrast with the metallic, grimy world of the workers. This fluid and happy-go-lucky world is immediately interrupted by the entrance of Maria and the worker children. Here is the direct conflict and contrast between workers and elites, high and low, heaven and hell. Later on in the film Freder witnesses one of these machines at work, each worker mechanically pushing buttons and pulling levers in uniform, fixed motions. It is as if these workers are themselves machines, as Lang uses the image of uniform, unnatural motion to represent a lack of humanity, hopefully inspiring repulsion in the audience according to Simon M (2010). Such exaggeration is arguably necessary in the case of a silent film in order to make up for the lack of proper dialogue, but it also may add to the raw symbolism of it all, going to every last length t o show the divide between worker and elite. This exaggeration practically defines Metropolis in many instances. Along with the aforementioned portrayals of Freder and Maria, there is the near-comically evil Rotwang, who inspired just about every mad scientist portrayed in popular culture since then according to Simon M (2010). Another important factor is the characteristics of the appearance and behaviour of Rotwang which does not fit the stereotype of a modern scientist, and there are indications that he may be in league with the devil. The personality of the scientist Rotwang belongs to one of the most interesting antagonists of the screen. The possibility of an ambivalent interpretation of his character, he is a scientist, but also something of a sorcerer allied with satanic forces, which gives him greater complexity according to UrgosÃ kovÃ ¡ (2009). In 1924, Fritz Lang visited New York City, where the big-city architecture struck him, and the luminous cityscape influenced the visual design and electrifying energy for the film. Originally an architect, Lang was a man of unusually sensitive visual perceptions. His films of those years show an expressionistic sense for the plastic and the lighting, which emphasized architectonic lines and conveyed a sense of geometric construction that not only extends to the sets and the depicted milieu but even influenced the positioning of the actors in individual shots. In keeping with the conventions of expressionism, the inhabitants of the subterranean city have no individuality, and the crowd represents a compact mass from which personality projects only as a stark exception and only in a definite rhythm according to UrgosÃ kovÃ ¡ (2009). The introductory sequences present this social organization in a very attractive light. In a magnificent, gigantic city with gleaming skyscrapers, suspension bridges, and bustling street, people live in comfort and plenty, with every possibility for intellectual and physical development. However, Metropolis is not a city of freedom and equality. Below ground, working for the chosen elite, are masses of nameless workers who have no more value within the social order than a cog in a machine or a tool or production. It is for this reason that the workers revolt and almost destroy the city; only then is there a reconciliation and an equalization of rights for the two strata, the elite and the workers. Lang honestly believed in this idea of reconciliation, and his attitude to a certain extent reflected the German reality, in which there were growing indications of stabilization and attempts to resolve social problems. The uneven lines, contrasts of light and dark, half-shadows and silhoue ttes, which serve to suggest mysterious and menacing actions, events, and emotions. Lang applied these techniques effectively and successfully to one of the varieties of the fantasy genre, what he created to be utopian work, or in modern words influenced the genre of Science Fiction according to UrgosÃ kovÃ ¡ (2009). What can also be factored is the importance of architecture in the Art Deco movement, where the advanced of technology was introduced, which made the construction of skyscrapers possible. This new way of building up rather than out, gave the illusion that we could reach the sky, giving a high expectation for our future. In the film Metropolis, the main building is the Babel tower, where the legend is told that it was made to reach the stars and on the top it would be written Great is the world and its Creator! And great is Man! but in the sequence of the film where this is explained, it shows how in order for a building or any structure to be built, one must first think of the idea, which is not always possible. Once the idea is put on paper or into small scale, it needs labour to be produced and this is when the hands come in, and it is shown that in order for the Babel tower to be built, it would take a lot of man power and therefore some blood would have to be shed in order for th e man who had thought of this building, could see it built. This is Metropoliss view on the built of skyscrapers, since they were using new techniques, which were not already perfected, and what it would take to build such things, the cost of human lives? That it is great for such ideas to ever be thought up, but is it necessary? At the time yes, since it showed the greatness of man and what he could achieve. When a director creates a film, its main purpose it to communicate a message through visuals and dialogue, which can be expressed in different ways, such as speech, facial expressions and written words. Its main focus is to make the audience feel exactly what the director has in mind, therefore when Fritz Lang created this film, these elements could not be forgotten or not be taken seriously, or else the film would have not gotten so much attention or gained so much success. In a way if unprofessional work had been done, we would not even talk about this movie today, but the push for a different genre in film and the motivation to build a realistic set and using the right lighting, made this film not only a work or art but a movie that will continue to affect people in generations to come. Interiors How does one judge anothers financial status? by the furniture and interior of their home, it is not always true, but when exposed to someone elses lifestyle and home, one can easily put a social status on the other. In Metropolis, the interiors of both the upper and lower worlds are very distinct. The upper shows a high usage of Art Deco elements and the lower is very cold and style-less. The Art Deco elements showed the high class, therefore representing the people who could afford such extravaganzas. The Utopian concept is very much present, from using such interiors, which were very popular with the American style of the time, showing how the exploiters can manage to hide the bad and only show the good, or in other words the output. As seen in the office of Joh Fredersen and in Freders bedroom, all the highest technology was available for their usage. From the bed shape to the lamps, as well as the desk, all the geometric elements can be seen. This was done to show how the upper class were able to live, compared to the lower class, which lived under ground, with not much to rely too, since their living space was limited to brick walls and constant work, were the luxurious Art Deco furniture would serve no purpose to them, since they did not have the time to appreciate it. All these elements were to show, the Utopian life lived by the people who ran the city, compared to the Dystopia it created by asking such a request from other human beings, it analyses the two points of society and how people live. Based on the concept of capitalism and materialism, where it can only be reached by the officers and not the workers, which tends to be a common theme in any point in history. The main point of using such distinct style or interiors and exteriors, was to show the freedom and lack of appreciation from the upper class, since they had everything, they forgot to think about what it took to give them this luxury. It is an important factor in the film, since the whole point is to show, how and why workers would revolt against their superiors, and making such a big contrast between the quality of life between the two made the impact of the workers revolt more powerful, since it showed what they were deprived from and how it affected them. Running a city and taki ng all the profits can only generate unfairness, therefore creating a created desire of unneeded things to people who do not pocess them. If the interior design had not been considered for this movie the different views of both classes would have not been so powerful, and taking into consideration that the film depended a lot on visual and not words, such things needed to be accentuated to create its full point, to be clear to the viewer, what people were being targeted and illustrated. For her all 7 deadly sins Many biblical references can be seen in this film, one of the most important element in Metropolis is the robot version of Maria, which carries on her all 7 deadly sins. This image of the woman can be interpreted on many levels, one can be to show how women were acting in the 1920s since it was a time where more open behaviours were accepted, their dresses got shorter, they started to smoke and drink in public and freely exposed their sexuality, a way for them to celebrate the modern woman. The emergence of emancipated and sexually liberated women, as well as organised feminist activities in the mid-1920s. The robot Maria, stylised as the New Woman, rips the social fabric asunder, inciting the workers to rebel and seducing them into self-destructive acts. Her punishment, once she is uncovered as an agent provocateur, is to be burned at the stake according to Isenberg (2009, p.181). The most important scene is when the robotic doppelgÃ ¤nger of Maria , with her twitchy eye, sexually dances in front of the upper class men, this behaviour was meant to distract and manipulate them, done in an exaggerated way, when all the mens eyes are seen, their mouths are open, they become more violent to the point where they all run to the podium on which she dances, she tricks them to be a temptress who is out to deceive those who fall for the illusion of a replica. This nexus of technology, visual pleasure, and fantasy also lay at the core of modern American mass culture, which, according to some cultural critics, had seduced Germany into renouncing its classical canon of high culture according to Isenberg (2009, p.181). This robotic Maria was meant as metaphors, one being the threat the modern woman would have on men and community with her new sexual manipulating techniques, second she represents America and how it first seduced Germany into mass culture, through the same kind of pleasurable ways. The artistic beauty which Lang made the robot, with its glittering female bod y, stylised breasts and inhuman mask instead of a face perfectly represents this theory, it was made on purpose to be sexual, since it needed to represent the power of womans new sexual behaviour and how it could impact communities. She is treated as being a witch when she is discovered to be an imposter, which again shows how this new act is unnatural and dangerous to the evolution of people and if practiced a woman is as good as dead and should be burned alive for her sins of manipulation. The beauty of woman was openly recognised, therefore women seemed to take advantage of this new attention they were getting and getting away with it, showing how soon women could have the same rights as men, since they could manipulate them, showing an unbalance to how people use to live and statuses between men and women were already established. Visual Communication Typography and movie poster Art Deco typefaces are composed of geometric forms, an influence from the geometrical formal language of the Constructivists, but the love for elegance at the time gave it a decorative touch. With this new style of type design, readability sometimes wasnt too clear, since the letters seemed flat and ornamental, where they received additional spacial and graphic embellishments. One characteristic change was type going from narrow to wide, sometimes the lower cases were completely ignored to embrace the thin, long stroked capital letters, but antique and fractured scripts remain the standard despite the eras prevailing tastes. At times they were the mouthpiece of twenties modernism, with its technology, communication, transportation and its dynamism; at other times, of mundane elegance and luxury transposed into a fantastical world of unadulterated glamour that takes precedence over typography according to Stawinski (2009, p.131). This became a graphic language of exotic cultures, whic h embodied themes of modern technology and ways of life. One distinct font of the Art Deco movement, is Broadway; designed by Morris Fuller Benton in 1925: (show type) Comparing it to the font used for the Metropolis title, one can see where the Art Deco elements of type are visible but how they have been altered to create the feel for the movie. This obvious alteration, created a sort of horror feel, but how? The descenders of the M, T, R, P and S have elongated, the bowls of the O have been evenly distributed, the I, L and E have been distorted, an also distorted dot has been added to the I, but all the most important factor is that each letter finishes with a point as can be seen in all the descenders and the arm of the T. These strong angles, visible in all the letters, even on the O since it not perfectly round but mostly choppy lines formed into a circle, have given this title its unique character, where it is only composed of angles, no smooth lines are present, respecting the geometric language of the time but going against elegance. Taking into consideration that Fritz Langs 1927 film Metropolis is a silent film, the written word used in intertitles played a large role in story comprehension. Intertitles are important in silent films, since they need to give the audience information through text, which should be both appealing and readable, to clearly express to the audience what is being visually shown. Metropolis would be particularly hard to understand without the on-screen narration, since the actors faces and movements can express only so much. The font chosen for the Metropolis intertitles is very artistically stylized, which goes against the futuristic city storyline, where a more straight-lined font may have been more appropriate. Even though Metropolis inspired the Science Fiction film style, it was not meant to be one, but rather an art film, therefore it makes sense to use artistic intertitles, as a way to make the movie balanced in the style it was creating. Throughout the films city the same stylise d font it used as well as numbers, which indicate the style used throughout Metropolis, which shows that typography played a big part in the films mood, is was careful placed and used to make sure all the information needed was clear and stylised accordingly. All these traits put together have created an abstract version of typical Art Deco font, but on purpose, in order to catch someones attention, one must stimulate that sense, the way to promote the art form of film was through making a poster for it, what better way to give it an identity and a feel. When a poster is designed, it is composed of information for its viewer, which is also targeted, to inform them of what is happening, this information is read through the usage of words, which is where typography comes in. This powerful tool of type design, is the cherry on top of a poster design, since it is also composed if imagery to trigger another kind of feel, but type when used correctly can automatically create the ambience to describe the art form as a whole. In the case of Metropolis, this alteration of type was used just for that purpose, to trigger the imagination of its viewer, to show something different then the typical Art Deco posters created at the time of its production . Since the films theme was also an alteration of the life views of the time, if a typical Art Deco font had been used, it would have not shown the effect the film as a whole was trying to reach. So going back to 1927, as someone is walking in the streets and sees the Metropolis poster advertising the film on a wall, one can imagine the attention it must have gotten, since everything else around was produced to support positivity and evolution, here comes something scary and negative, therefore triggering the curiosity of people to see why it was so different. In order for a poster or any other sort of advertising elements to be successful, they need to properly represent what it is symbolising, which the one of a kind font used for the title of Metropolis did, it was the introduction to the movie before someone went to the theatre to see. Going to the next visual element, posters are a very powerful advertising tool, since they can be placed literally anywhere, therefore making them reachable to any eyes and to any audience. Typography as said before is one of the most important elements of a poster, since it makes the audience aware of what the poster is about, since it will surely cary a title. The other element is imagery, which is usually the background, and is used to go along with the title, to create a unified theme and helps the viewer reach a conclusion of their own to what the poster may mean. Posters are an art, since they need to work in a way where they need to be noticed at first glance, and briefly inform the viewer with all the important information in a couple of minutes. For such a film as Metropolis, which is in fact a two hour viewing of moving images, the poster had to illustrate all of that into one image, basically giving away the whole movie in a single view. Typical Art Deco posters were colourful, vibrant, energetic, showed a lot of movement, basically they illustrated and embraced the new technologies being introduced. They were drawn and printing with the latest techniques invented, showing people living in this new modernity, such as travel, fashion, drinking and smoking. What used to be taboo, was now in the open and people were showing off this new lifestyle full of luxury and advancement, which had never been seen before. This perfect lifestyle, mostly only affordable by the higher class, was praised upon, everyone had to be part of this new movement, exposing their inner desires, or letting all hell break lose. This new freedom of expression, and new possibilities had to be reflected, mostly through abstract views, such as people were usually drawn through geometric forms, almost not real, like this movement was too good to be true, in a way it showed the fear of people, since it used fantasy images to show what was really going on, things were moving too fast and the population did not really have time to digest all of this, therefore showing people though geometric elements, was a easier way to accept it. The imagery of the Metropolis poster distributed at the time, was duotone, illustrating only buildings in the background and the robot in the foreground, the title of the film at the top and all the information at the bottom. The duotone, was against all the colourful posters at the time, since the movie was showing the dark side of the Utopian philosophy of Art Deco, the robot in the middle represented the most important part of the film, but also to show people how they would evolve, but the answer to how lied in watching the movie. The information at the bottom, gave the regular film info; who directed it, the main actors, music composer, production house and writer. The drawing of the robot used a lot of curved lines, and showed an emotionless face, making it obvious that humans were being interpreted as robots. Conclusion Lets start with the quote The mediator between head and hands must be the heart taken from the film Metropolis, from this analysis it can be said that Art Deco is the head and the hands and Metropolis is the heart. The Utopian idea of Art Deco was a way to celebrate the new world and its technologies whereas Metropolis was the Dystopian view hidden behind this philosophy. It can be seen through all the elements stated, as a warning or a reality to what the world may evolve to be, that without the heart a life cannot function, but without the head and the hands a world cannot evolve. Therefore they both go hand in hand, but never one without the other, that humans may never forget their real values. This is the message that the film portrayed, that there is beauty in evolving, but we must never forget who we really are and our true powers, that if we rely too much on machines (technology) then what is left of us? Art Deco, was a time when everything was changing, the excitement of a n ew life, the embracing of a freedom given to people by machines doing jobs for them. These two art forms, have proven themselves through history and have shaped the world we now live in, but without art, how could anyone in the future know how a community evolved or lived, this is why it is important to analyse all the details of one element and how it fits into the time period it was produced, to better understand its message and value. The naÃ ¯ve way people were living during the 1920s, was in a way beautiful and pure, they had no worries except live and explore their new identities, Metropolis showed the difference between the high class or in other words the heads versus the lower class, the hands, and how they would live in two different worlds, one above and one below. This shows, that once an idea is conceived, the inventor takes all the credit, whereas the hands who built it, are never recognised for the hard work and risks it took to construct it. People in the higher class would be the only one to appreciate the hands work, since they would be the only ones would could afford it, they would be the only ones who could have the luxury to live in such buildings reaching the stars and afford such extravaganzas in their homes. But where did the workers fit in, in all of this? This is what Metropolis, was showing, that for such a Utopia to exist fairness should be placed between the heads who conceive ideas and the hands who built them, and yes in order to do that, the only power is our hearts. When speaking about art, the philosophy behind it must always be talked about, since it explains why it was created and what it was meant to represent, without one, you cant have the other, which is also another strong point about the quote, since people tend to concentrate on the most important facts but forgetting how it became important. Metropolis also created its own Utopia, where as long as the heart is present and the human side in humankind is never lost, we can live in an harmonious world. The hand shake in the end, also could represent the labour giving in again to capital. Metropolis inaugurated a series of utopias on film that attempted to resolve the difficulties of the contemporary state of society by projecting them into a story with a futuristic setting according to UrgosÃ kovÃ ¡ (2009).
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Commercial Management And Project Management Construction Essay Kalifomatos Consultants is a Quantity Surveying firm with a wide range of services provided for the potential Client. One of the fields KCQS specializes in is Project Management. Project Management aims to deliver any given Project ensuring the desired balance between Time, Cost and Quality. Feasibility reports, according to Douglas (1999), test whether the requirements initially set out can be actually met or not. Boyle (2003) suggests that feasibility reports can take different forms. Functional feasibility amongst others refers to physical requirements as well as soil conditions. Technical feasibility refers to the statutory consents as well as the time constraints whereas financial feasibility deals with the costs of the development and in essence creates a budget for the Client to decide on whether he can follow it or not. In addition to the above, business feasibility deals with the strategic brief analysis indicating if the qualitative aspects of the development match the business model of the Client. In this stage, the initial statement of requirements is developed into the design brief on behalf of the Client confirming the key requirements and constraints for the development, following the feasibility analysis taken earlier. The next step that follows is the identification of which procurement method is better for use which sufficiently meets the Clients requirements; the Project Manager could do this. The last step of the Design brief is to assemble the people that need to be involved in the development process which comprise of Architects, Quantity Surveyors etc. (Boyle 2003) According to the information our firm has been provided with, the borehole records the Client is said to have in his possession are of a neighboring site to the proposed one. The fact that a neighboring site has previously undergone a site investigation does not guarantee that for example the soil conditions for the proposed one will be the same. The strata could vary as well as the depth of the water table; maybe a new site investigation for the proposed site reveals that the site has been bombed during the war, resulting to a distortion of soil conditions in the site. This could be seen as a possible constrain which would have been identified if a site investigation had been undertaken. Another activity that has been undertaken was the acquiring of the site. Following the previous point, as well as the fact that our company has not been presented with an actual investigation for the proposed site, the site could be rendered as completely useless for the purposes its needed. Taking into consideration the fact that the Clients directors have previous development experience for some years, the acquiring of the site with no site investigation undergone could be seen as a very naÃ ¯ve move. According to Hacket (2007), Management Contracting and Construction Management are very similar in many aspects, nevertheless, there is one essential distinguishing characteristic which is fundamental to the understanding of the two systems; the contractual arrangements between the parties involved. In Management Contracting, the subcontractors are in contact with the Management Contractor whereas in Construction Management they are in direct contact with the employer; none of the subcontracts are entered into by the Construction Manager. The difference is illustrated by comparing the two diagrams provided. The most important requirement the Client has set out was that the quality level is to be prestige. The best quality is offered from traditional procurement method. Another requirement set out by the client is the flexibility of the design; also traditional procurement is the best suited for this but Design and Manage offers a high utility for this section as well. However, when it comes to high complexity of the design, Traditional procurement does not best suit the description whereas all the other methods do. The next requirement set out is asap completion; Traditional Procurement does not offer that whereas again, all the other methods do. Furthermore, Design and Manage offers the single point responsibility the Client is looking for as well as Design and Build. This feature would not be available with Traditional Procurement method nor with the Design and Build or the Management Contracting as illustrated in the previous schematics. Furthermore, two of HRD2010s directors have pr evious development experience, so the fact that in order to use Design and Manage one needs previous experience is seen as a disadvantage, is easily one to overcome here. The main reason Construction Management has been rejected even though it is very similar to Design and Manage, was the single point of responsibility required by the Client; thus total utility offered in the chart is 450. And last but not least, the Client welcomes the sharing of risks; Design and Manage can also satisfy that requirement. Based on the RIBA task allocation, the Client has not performed properly the Preparation stage. Vital points have been left out which could have major impacts on the projects development. KCQS has provided the Client with some recommendations for the successful progression of the development. These would be the immediate conduction of a site investigation for the proposed developments site in order to be able to proceed accordingly. The Client has failed to provide a proper feasibility report (recommended) which is vital in assessing the quality of the proposed development, its costs as well as the need to meet statutory consents. Following the above, the Client should be able to address to possible constraints with regards to the development and overcome them in due time. It is also recommended that the people that are to be involved in the development process are to be identified.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Scapegoats for Society In the last decade or so, and especially since the shootings in Columbine and various other schools, people have been up in arms about violence and sex in movies, television, music and video games. New restrictions have been put on most of these media forms, or at the very least, old restrictions are enforced more rigidly. Rating systems have been put into effect for television and video games, and warnings have been put on music that sometimes isnÃ¢â¬â¢t even all that offensive. While many of these precautions are justified, I believe that blaming terrible incidents like Columbine on these media is just passing the buck, and ultimately avoiding the real issues at hand. Ever since Clark Gable said the word damn in Gone With The Wind in 1939, movies have pushed the boundaries of what our society considers to be acceptable. As our society becomes more desensitized to sex, foul language and violence, movies are going to have to try even harder to push the limits. One might ask, Ã¢â¬Å "Why do film makers try to surprise audiences with more Ã¢â¬Å"offensiveÃ¢â¬ content in movies?" They continue to make movies more graphic because that is what will make money. Even if action movies donÃ¢â¬â¢t have much of a presence in the top ten highest grossing movies of all time, a good action movie will generally more than break even. Whether the customers are bloodthirsty action movie fans, or censorship advocates watching just to see what filth is being produced, sex and violence sell. Many movies that are more artistic use violence to make intriguing social commentary, or to tell an important historical story. For example, powerful movies like American History X, a story about a young man who has grown up as a Neo-Nazi, and later sees the error of his ways, (by the way, this is an amazing movie, and if you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t seen it you really should) can change peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives forever, but could not make nearly as strong a statement without using violence as a story telling tool. War movies would also be rather ineffective without showing the death and destruction that surround war. Another industry that has received its share of baseless blame for violence in the last several years is the video game industry. For years, mothers around the world have told their kids that video games were a waste of time, money and brain power.